Aida   Aida Taqi Al-Lawati

The potential of some Bacillus species isolated from oil contaminated soil for the enhancement of oil recovery. Awarded Master of Sciencein Biology 2009, Department of Biology, College of Science.


Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR), makes use of microorganisms and their metabolic products to improve the recovery of crude oil from the reservoir. These metabolites include biosurfactants, biopolymers, acids, solvents and gases. Each of the metabolites has its role in enhancing oil recovery, and bacterial strains may produce some of these metabolites. In this project; 70 samples were collected from different garages, petrol stations and from Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) oil fields; Sultanate of Oman. Forty oil contaminated soil samples were collected from the garages and 20 from oil fields. Moreover, 7 crude oil samples, 2 injection water samples and 1 mud cutting sample were from oil fields as well. Twenty-six of the isolates, which were from the soil, were able to grow at 60oC and under anaerobic condition. However, only 16 isolates which were from the soil were able to tolerate under high saline condition (150000 ppm of NaCl) and able to secrete higher concentrations of biosurfactant (around 22.7mN/m) and biopolymers (about 0.53 cP). Whereas some of the bacterial isolates produced very little biosurfactant when screened using oil spreading technique and very little biopolymers which was seen by the formation of less mucoid colonies. Four isolates were selected for further studies using viscometer and tensiometer. No acid or gas was generated at 15% salinity. The 16 strains were checked for the compatibility test. Using the API system, it was identified as; Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius, Bacillus megateriumBacillus subtilis/amyloliquefaciensAneurinibacillus aneurinilyticusBrevibacillus spp, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus spp. However, using DNA sequencing method, it was found that all of the isolates were Bacillus licheniformis with 99% identity.

Ratiba1 MSc   Ratiba Ali Al-Maaini

Screening for microbial consortia and their metabolites for microbial enhanced oil recovery in Omani oil wells. Awarded Master of Sciencein Biology 2009. Department of Biology, College of Science.


Microbial enhanced oil recovery is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia and their metabolites from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Sultanate of Oman were screened. Two sets of media were used for screening for biogas,biosurfactant and biopolymers production. Using the first set media (PI, SRHC, NRHC, TSB,NB and NiB), 53% of the wells produced biogas and 40% of the wells produced biosurfactant in sulfate reducing hydrocarbon media (SRHC).Whereas 7% of the wells produced biopolymers in tryptone soya broth (TSB) and nitrate broth (NIB). On the other hand, using the second set media(SO4, Methanoform, NO3, Fermentative, SRB and NRB) biogas was produced by all of the wells in all media, biosurfactant was produced by 42% of the well samples in methanoform media. Biopolymers produced by all of the wells in Sulfate reducing bacteria media (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria media (NRB). Methane was produced by 91.6% of the well samples in methanoform media. While 66.6% of the well samples gave positive reduction of sulfate. Chemical analysis of the brine from the reservoir showed that Wafra oil wells have a moderate salinity and a low level of alkalinity. The amount of cations and anions were sufficient for the growth of microbial consortia. Substantial amount of sulfate and sulfide were detected in brine indicating a potential for sulfate reduction activity. The SEM and TEM micrographs of the microbial consortia showed variety in the size, shape and motility. Of the various carbohydrates tested for biosurfactant production, minimal salt media (MSM) containing (glucose +kerosene +oil) gave the highest biosurfactant activity. A high percentage of residual nitrate NO3 was detected in both NRB and NO3 media. While ammonium NH4 production was double in NRB media as compared with NO3 media. On the other hand, the amount of NOwas higher in NO3 than NRB media. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using a16s rRNA gene sequencer and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Eleven microbial genera were identified from Wafra oil wells in culture independent techniques and seven microbial genera were identified in culture dependent techniquesOn the other hand, eleven microbial genera were detected from Suwaihat production water in culture independent techniques and four microbial genera were identified in culture dependent techniques. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified from Wafra oil wells and Suwihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first records in Oman and most of them were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic and halophilic, which might be good candidates for MEOR. Caminicella sporogenes is the second world record and first world record in an oil field.


Balqees   Balqees Saud  Suliman Al-Hinai

Potential of Thermophilic Spore Forming Bacteria in heavy oil recovery. Awarded Master of Science in Biology 2011. Department of Biology, College of Science.


Heavy oil which is the largest potentially recoverable energy source faced many problems in recovery due to its high viscosity and heavy contents. Today there is an interest worldwide to develop new and clean technologies for heavy oil recovery.  Bacteria are able to live with oil and cause desired changes in its physiochemical properties. Heavy oil utilization ability of seven bacteria consortia isolated from contaminated soil was investigated. Thermophillic spore forming bacteria were isolated from contaminated soil and inoculated with heavy oil in three different media; M6, M7 and M8. Bacterial growth patterns were found to be same in all media types indicating that change in components not affecting growth. Clearing zones were formed in oily plate with all bacterial cultures and their free cell filtrates. The highest bacterial density was found at day twenty-one of incubation with heavy oil. Drastic decrease in surface tension and interfacial tension was found for all samples. Viscosity of liquid medium was found to be highest at day seventeen after 21 days of incubation with heavy oil. 16 sRNA sequencing of 27 isolates from contaminated soil showed that isolates belong to three classes (Alpha-proteobacteria, gamma-proteobacteria and bacilli). Scanning electron microscopy of oil utilizing bacteria showed that are rod in shape with presence of rough surface and fimbria. Gas chromatography analysis showed difference in oil composition for crude oil and treated oil. Treated oil for 21 days with bacteria consortia showed that it mainly consisted of light hydrocarbons ranging from 11-27.  In conclusion, these isolates can have a potential in heavy oil recovery by changing its viscosity and oil composition.


Hanaa  Hanaa Salim Al-Sulaimani

Microbial enhanced oil recovery and its potential in some Omani oil fields. Awarded Doctorate of Philosophy in Engineering 2012. Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering.  


The complexity of reservoir rock and fluid properties in Oman led the operating companies to consider different technologies such as thermal and chemical methods to enhance oil recovery. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is one of the proposed technologies that can potentially be implemented as an effective alternative for enhancing oil recovery. This research study investigates experimentally the potential of MEOR applications in some Omani oil fields using Bacillus strains isolated from oil contaminated soil samples in local garages and an Omani oil field. This was achieved by screening and media optimization of the bacteria for biosurfactant, biopolymer and biomass production and investigating their different mechanisms for enhancing oil recovery from original rock and fluid samples. A Bacillus subtilis strain W19 was found to produce biosurfactant that gave the maximum interfacial tension (IFT) reduction (from 46.6 to 3.28 mN/m) when grown in a minimal production medium containing glucose. The optimum incubation time was found to be 16 hours at 40 °C where the minimum IFT value was reached. The biosurfactant was extracted and thoroughly studied for its potential in enhancing oil recovery. The yield of the biosurfactant was 2.5g/l with critical micelle concentration (cmc) of 0.25 g/l. It was characterized by FT-IR and different mass spectrometry (MS) analysis where it was found to have similar structure to standard surfactin. The biosurfactant was found to be stable over a wide range of temperature, salinity and pH values. A total of 23% of residual oil was produced in coreflooding experiments. The enhancement in residual oil recovery increased to upto 50% when the biosurfactant was mixed with specific chemical surfactants at specific ratios. The ability of the biosurfactant to alter the wettability of rocks and surfaces was studied and confirmed by different approaches which could be one of the mechanisms for enhancing oil recovery. Tendency of loss of the biosurfactant due to adsorption was tested and it was found that the maximum loss was comparable to the chemical surfactants values. It was concluded based on the experimental results that there is a high potential of applying the MEOR technology in some Omani oil fields by the biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis strain W19 where production scale-up and pilot test are recommended to better evaluate its applicability in the field scale. The Bacillus strains were also screened for biopolymer production using four reported media with different carbon sources and concentrations of each. It was found that none of the strains showed noticeable increase in the broth viscosity where most of the viscosity values ranged within the average viscosity value of water. It was thus concluded that further investigations with other media and carbon sources are required in addition to new isolations to screen for biopolymer producing microbes. Selective plugging by microbial biomass was also investigated where the isolates were tested for their ability to grow in induced fractures in carbonate rocks and to divert subsequent injection water to the un-swept matrix zones. Nitrogen and carbon sources were optimized for maximum growth and Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to prove the growth of the microbial cells in the fracture. Coreflooding experiments showed promising results where 27-30% of the residual oil was produced after 10-12 hours of incubation. This shows the high potential of using microbial biomass for selective plugging in fractured reservoirs.


Asmaa   Asmaa Khamis Al-Bahri

Screening and Characterization of Lichenysin and Surfactin Genes from Enhancing Oil Recovery Molecular Species Bacillus. Awarded Master of Science in Biology 2013. Department of Biology, College of Science.


Petroleum oil is a major source of energy globally. Recently this industry is facing many problems in driving oil from its mature oil-wells. Many EOR techniques are used to enhance oil recovery including microbial enhance oil recovery (MEOR). In MEOR microbes produce different metabolites: biosurfactant, biopolymer, acids, solvents, and gases that can be used to increase the portion of oil recovered from reservoirs. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules which have high potential applications in MEOR: it decreases the surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water and as a consequence, release oil trapped in the rock pores by capillary forces, which display oil from the pores into the liquid mobile phase. Surfactin and lichenysin are the best reported lipopeptidal-biosurfactants. Seventeen Bacillus strains previously isolated from oil contaminated soil samples were used in this study. Those isolates were screened for the biosurfactant production and three were selected for further studies based on lower ST and IFT: B30, W16, and W19. Crude biosurfactants were isolated using acid-precipitation and spray-dryer. To further identify the chemical nature of the biosurfactants, FTIR, TLC and HPTLC\ESI MS were used. Molecular techniques were also used as a screening method for the biosurfactant producer using  these 17 isolates and collected contaminated soil samples from Wafra oil field. After DNA extraction, the PCR was conducted for the surfactin/lichenysin (srfA3/licA3) gene responsible for biosurfactant production. Out of seventeen bacterial isolates, fourteen showed the presence of srfA3/licA3 gene and all ten samples of contaminated soil showed that it had a bacterial isolate(s) having the gene responsible for surfactin\ licheneysin lipopeptide biosurfactant production.  Even that 14 isolates had the srfA3/licA3 gene which is responsible for surfactin\ licheneysin production however, only three isolates were the best biosurfactant producer (B30, W19, and W16) in the used production medium gave lower ST and IFT. Different environmental or genetic factors could be a reason for that. Initial chemical characterization of B30, W19 and W16 showed it to be a mixture of lipopeptides. The results clearly showed potential of using molecular biology methods for petroleum biotechnology for identifying biosurfactant producers from oil contaminated sites.


Rayah    Rayah Rashid Khalfan Al-Hattali

Experimental Investigation of Enhancing Oil Recovery in Simulated Fractured Carbonate Rocks by Selective Plugging of Microbial biomass. Awarded Masters of Science in Engineering 2012. Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering.


Microbial biomass selective plugging is one of the proposed mechanisms for improving reservoir sweep efficiency in highly fractured reservoirs. In this work, the potential of Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from oil contaminated soil from the Sultanate of Oman was tested for their ability to grow in induced fractures in carbonate rocks and to divert subsequent injection water to the upswept matrix zones. Four Bacillus licheniformis strains were tested with name codes; B17, B29, W16 and W19. Their growth behavior under different nitrogen sources using yeast extract, peptone and urea was investigated. Glucose and sucrose were tested as carbon sources. Carbon/nitrogen ratios were optimized where it was found that sucrose was the carbon source that maximized bacterial growth with concentration of 2% and yeast extract was the selected nitrogen source with concentration of 0.1%. The combination of B. licheniformisstrain W16 in a minimal medium containing sucrose incubated for 10 to 11 hours was the optimum condition for maximum cell growth. Indiana limestone core plugs were used for coreflooding experiments. A fracture was simulated by slicing the cores vertically into two sections using a thin blade. The bacterial cells were injected into the cores and the ability of the microbes to grow and plug the fracture was examined. Scanning electron microscopy was used to prove the growth of the microbial cells in the fracture after the experiment. Coreflooding experiments showed promising results where enhancement of oil recovery was observed after bacterial injection. A total of 27-30% of the residual oil was produced after 11 hours of incubation. This shows the high potential of using microbial biomass for selective plugging in fractured reservoirs.


Maissa  Maissa Sassi Souayah

Optimization of Low Concentration Bacillus subtilis Strain Biosurfactant towards Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery. Awarded Masters of Science in Engineering 2014. Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering.


This study investigates the ability of lipopeptidebiosurfactant produced from Bacillus subtilis strain isolated from oil contaminated Omani oil field soil samples to recover the residual oil at reduced concentration. The biosurfactant reduced the interfacial tension to 1.8 mN/m and also altered the wettability to more neutral wettability. The biosurfactant is stable over wide range of pH and temperatures.The minimum biosurfactant concentration required to make the process economically feasible was determined by performing core-flood experiments at various critical micelle dilutions using 200-300 md Berea sandstone cores with porosity of 22%. The fluids used in the work are 32o API crude oil, and brine with 7-9% salinity collected from the field of interest. Experiments were conducted at the reservoir temperature, 60oC. It was found that biosurfactant can maintain an extra recovery of 14% of residual oil after water flooding even after 20 times dilution. These results revealed that the biosurfactant is still effective even at concentration as low as the CMC value (0.1 g/L). Furthermore, the performance of 20 times diluted biosurfactant was improved by mixing it with commercial chemical surfactant to the ratios of 50%biosurfactant:50%chemical surfactant and 25%biosurfactant: 75%chemical surfactant, and, resulted in extra recovery of 28% and 27% of residual oil after water flooding respectively. Salinity studies show that this biosurfactant maintained a relatively low interfacial tension values over wide range of salinities. Biosurfactant maintained extra recovery of about 20% till a salinity of 20%. When the salinity was increased to 10%, the biosurfactant was still successful in reducing the water flooding residual oil saturation by 12% even when diluted by 10 times. Economical evaluation showed that using this biosurfactant at low concentration would produce appreciable amount of trapped oil with minimum cost.


Biji  Biji Shibulal Dharesh Nivas

The potential of autochthonous spore-forming bacteria in enhanced heavy oil recovery and oil-spill clean up. Awarded Doctorate of Philosophy in Biology 2017. Department of Biology, College of Science.


The increasing energy demands due to global population growth, the difficulty in discovering new oilfields and the maturity of existing oil fields demand for alternative technologies since fossil fuels are the main source of energy. Oman is continuously applying efforts to increase oil recovery. The residual oil that is left behind in the reservoir after primary and secondary recovery is the target for EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery). The conventional tertiary oil recovery methods include chemical flooding, miscible COinjection and thermally enhanced oil recovery. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a low cost, environment-friendly tertiary technique. The exploration, production and transport of crude oil lead to oil spills, the disposal of which is expensive. The conventional methods of oil spill clean-up include land filling, incineration, natural remediation and chemical method. Bioremediation is an environmental friendly acceptable method of elimination of crude oil pollution since most of the hydrocarbons present in the crude oil are biodegradable. Inhabitant spore-forming bacteria that can utilize crude heavy oil were isolated and screened for their potential for heavy oil bio-fractionation. The crude oil biodegradation potential was initially assessed by their growth characteristics in Bushnell- Haas (BH) medium containing crude heavy oil (API° 4.57) as the sole carbon source. The five isolates, P. ehimensisB. firmusB. haloduransB. subtilis and B. licheniformis which showed maximum growth were selected for the study and their crude heavy oil tolerance (upto 7%) was determined. Gas-chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the biofractionated heavy crude oil acted upon by the isolates in BH media for a period of 9 days further proved the efficacy of the isolates. The GC-MS analysis of bio-transformed heavy crude oil by P. ehimensis showed 67.12% biotransformation of total crude heavy oil with 85.3% reduction in aromatic fractions and the aliphatic fractions to 45.9% reduction. The biotransformation studies using GC-MS showed 81.36% biotransformation of heavy crude oil for B. firmus and 81.93% for B. halodurans compared to the abiogenic control. B. subtilis and B. licheniformis biodegraded crude heavy oil, utilizing both aliphatic compounds and aromatic compounds in the crude heavy oil and have proved to be promising candidates for bioremediation. An attempt to characterize the genes responsible for the biofractionation was done. Among the 20 sets of primers used, the sequencing of the bands from two sets of primers, C230 (product size: 700bp) and AcC12O (product size: 700bp) showed the results as heme ABC transporter gene, which is the flanking region of catechol dioxygenase gene and cation:proton antiporter gene, which was reported for alkaline pH homeostasis. The QX100 ddPCR analyses revelaed that the copy number variation of these genes in the 5 isolates were as follows: the catechol dioxygenase gene copy number is highest in P. ehimensis, followed by B. firmus and B. halodurans; and the copy of cation:proton antiporter gene is the least in P. ehimensis. These findings suggest that the isolates use different mechanisms or variant of the genes to maintain the pH of cells. For the microbial growth, activity and survival, metals and minerals play a major role. The utilization of minerals by the isolates in BH media containing crude heavy oil during the study showed that the most utilized element being Mg, followed by Fe. The source of soil from where the isolates contained Fe, Al, Si as major elements whereas Mg was seen only among 3 or 4 soil samples. The most utilized element by the isolates was supplemented through BH media. Some of the elements like Ca, Be, B, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn and Sr were found to be utilized by the isolates in the media, which were not supplemented, suggesting their contribution by the crude oil in the media. Core-flooding experiment using sandstone cores simulating the oil field conditions resulted in 10-13% extra recovery by P. ehimensis; 9.5-10.5% and 7-8% for B. firmus and B. halodurans after the 10 days shut in period. The detailed microscopic study of the sections of the core plug used in the study showed microbial growth inside the cores. GC-MS analysis of the extra recovered oil resulted in higher percentage of lighter fractions suggesting the increase in the flow of the crude oil. No biosurfactant production was observed during the study period. The metagenomics analysis of the soil samples indicated the abundance of Bacillus sp., followed by Paenibacillus sp. The extreme temperature conditions along with low moisture content (≈0.3 m3/m3) and a slightly alkaline pH might be the reason for the abundance of Bacillus sp. These findings suggest that P. ehimensisB. firmus and B. halodurans can be used as potential candidates for MEOR and B. subtilis and B. licheniformis for bioremediation. The choice of isolates that are abundantly found in the environment will increase the applicability in diverse geographical areas.


abdullah   Abdullah Anwar Al-Sayegh

Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery through Biotransformation. Doctorate of Philosophy in Engineering (in progress). Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering.


Diminishing light, easy to produce, oil resources and minimal change in energy consumption has led explorers to develop the low quality heavy crude oil resources that are estimated at seven times that of conventional crude oils through numerous means of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. These methods, including microbial ones, have their own merits and constraints; however, unlike other EOR techniques, microbial EOR (MEOR) needs little input of energy to produce bacteria and bacterial bioproducts, field applications do not directly depend on global crude oil prices and they are environmentally friendly. In this context, the study aimed to isolate and characterize local microbes that can degrade heavy crude oil and evaluate the effectiveness of the biotransformation process. The study was conducted on bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated soil samples collected from oil sludge pits and heavy crude oil of Qarn Alam field. DNA from the soil samples was extracted from the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq sequencer in order to perform the biodiversity analyses. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla at the samples ranging from 24 to 36% and from 27% to 55% respectively. At genus level, Halanaerobium dominated across all the samples followed by Deferribacter and Desulfovermiculus. As expected at such case of heavy crude oil contaminated that naturally contains sulfer, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were abundant. The findings supported the use of contaminated soil with heavy crude oil as source for bacteria, which are able to survive harsh conditions and degrade crude oil for the bioremediation and enhanced oil recovery purposes. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using heavy crude oil hydrocarbons are limited. The soil samples were heated to narrow the bacterial pool even further and focus the research on spore forming bacteria only. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media and were isolated from the soils samples and the heavy crude oil sample. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted and registered at GenBank (NCBI) database (accession numbers: KJ729814 to KJ729828). The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Microbial growth and heavy crude oil biodegradation were assessed by growth at flasks, well-assays on agar plates and GC-FID of extracted crude oil. M2 medium proved to be best medium for growth and biotransformation. Among the isolates, Bacillus licheniformis AS5 and Bacillus subtilis AS2 were the most efficient isolate in biotransformation. Isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16% of oil initially in place was recovered. The key challenge of experimental in-situ anaerobic biotransformation of heavy crude oil is time as a single in-situ flooding experiment could take at least three weeks including incubation of bacteria at the cores. Thus, sand pack columns were experimented with in order to save time and cost. Regrettably, the sand pack columns did not work effectively although being the ideal solution for such lengthy in-situ MEOR experiments due to brine bypassing oil. The combination of high porosity/permeability and heavy oil was the perfect bypass receipt. Effects of different nitrogen sources, glucose and sodium thiosulfate on growth and biotransformation were investigated. Yeast extract was the most favorable nitrogen source for our bacteria as it resulted to the highest growth level in comparison to urea and ammonium nitrate nitrogen sources. Glucose addiotion to M2 medium led to increased bacterial growth at aerobic and anaerobic conditions while sodium thiosulfate was reduced growth. An in-depth analysis whole genome sequencing analysis and annotation was conducted on AS2 and AS5 and then were compared to model organisms of their kind: Bacillus subtilis str. 168 and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13. On biodegradataion, aromatic compounds degradation gene: pcaC and aminobenzoate degradation gene: atoD at the locally isolated B. subtilis AS2 but not at the model strain B. subtilis str. 168. B. licheniformis AS5 and model strain B. licheniformis DSM 13 had similar degradation genes except these of the Styrene. AS5 had E3.5.1.4/amiE and catE genes while B. licheniformis DSM 13 had feaB and catE genes. All strains AS2, AS5 and their model strains, contained degradation genes of the following compounds: aromatics, benzoates, aminobenzoates, chloroalkanes, chloroalkenes, chlorocyclohexanes, chlorobenzenes, xylene, dioxin, ethylbenzene, styrenes, atrazines and naphthalene. All strains did not contain Fluorobenzoate, Toluene, Nitrotoluene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes. On biosurfactants, B. subtilis AS2 had surfactin and iturin biosurfactants family genes while B. subtilis str. 168 had surfactin and plipastatin biosurfactants family genes. B. licheniformisAS5 and B. licheniformis DSM 13 had similar lichenysin genes. On biopolymers, AS2 and AS5 bacteria had the following genes: racE, ywtB, ywtD and ggt; however, did not contain the poly-gamma-glutamate biosynthesis protein pgsC observed at the models strains. The isolated bacteria of this study did not produce any bioproducts. Thus, other media were tested which were used at literature toproduce metabolites from bacteria similar to this study’s isolated bacteria. At the experiments, biosurfactant was produced by Bacillus subtilis AS2 while Bacilluslicheniformis AS5 did not produce neither biosurfactant or biopolymer. The lowest observed surface tension was 28.78±0.79 mN/m at MP8 by AS2. AS2 MP8 interfacial tension to hexadecane was 4.22±0.60 mN/m. The performance of the AS2 biosurfactant is comparable to biosurfactants similar to its kind. The sand pack qualitative flooding results showed 4-5% additional recovery. This is a good indication that the biosurfactant could work at core flooding experiments. AS2 Biosurfactant was analyzed by FTIR. The IR spectrum showed similarity to the standard biosurfactant, surfactin.


Walaaimage1  Walaa Yousif Al-Miqbali

Microbial degradation of polyacrylamide polymer used in enhanced oil recovery. Master of Science in Biology (in progress). Department of Biology, College of Science.


Taher photo  Taher Yousuf Abdullah Al-Ghailani  

Use of biopolymer in enhanced oil recovery. Masters of Science in Engineering (in progress). Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering.